The term "pedagogy" refers to how teachers manage their classroom instruction in ways that help students to learn subject matter. Examples of a pedagogical approach include how a teacher chooses to present material, to ask questions, to correct misconceptions, or to encourage students to communicate through writing or class discussion.

Purpose of Professional Development
(Average Percent of Professional Development Hours)

Average Percent of Professional Development Hours

During LSC activities, a typical teacher would spend about one-third of professional development time deepening their knowledge of mathematics/science content, about one-third deepening their knowledge of effective pedagogy, and one-third increasing their understanding of the district-designated mathematics and science instructional materials. In many sessions, content and pedagogy were interwoven with the instructional materials that teachers would use in their classrooms.

LSC projects had a positive impact on teachers' perceptions of their pedagogical preparedness. In a longitudinal analysis of teacher questionnaire responses, teachers' perceptions of confidence in their ability to teach mathematics and science increased with their participation in professional development sessions provided by the LSC. Another aspect of this study's findings is that, when controlling for teacher participation in the LSC, scores on the indicators of pedagogical preparedness increased as projects matured, which indicates that the LSC projects were having a "systemic" effect on teacher preparedness. (Heck & Crawford, 2004b).

Teacher Perceptions of Their Pedagogical Preparedness,
by Extent of Participation in LSC Professional Development

Perceptions of Pedagogical Preparedness

Teachers credited their new beliefs about how students learn - through questioning, discovery and reflection - to LSC professional development. Evaluators also cited changes in teachers' beliefs about who can learn science and mathematics, from a reliance on ability grouping to accommodate low student performance to an attitude that all students can learn challenging mathematics and science.

The LSC Capstone Report: Lessons from a Decade of Mathematics and Science Reform
(PDF) [354 KB]